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Things To Know About Parenthetical Citations In A Research Paper


There are many ways of citing an author’s work. The purpose of the citation is not only to give credit to the one who originally said or wrote something in a book, part or whole but also to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is like “stealing” an intellectual property and acknowledging it as your own. To further discourage this problem, here are some of the things to know about parenthetical citations in a research paper:

  1. The American Psychological Association (APA) Style
  2. In an in-text citation with APA, there are three very important information that will appear:

    • The author’s surname
    • Publication date
    • Page number/s

    The first two items should always appear in every citation that you make. The third item is only applicable if the citation is used as a direct quotation.

    e.g. (Locke, 1698).

    However, if the citation is a dire

    ct quote from the text, the page number must be indicated.

    e.g. “The mind sees in itself or is the quick protest of recognition, thought or comprehension.” (Locke, 1698, p.48)

  3. The Modern Language Association (MLA) Style
  4. If the author’s surname or family name is a part of the text, only the page numbers are enclosed in a parenthesis.

    e.g. Locke developed this philosophy (46-48)

    When the author’s name is used as a reference to a text, the surname is enclosed in the parenthesis, together with the page numbers.

    e.g. This philosophy is accepted by almost all academicians all over the world. (Locke, 46-48).

    In the case where there are two authors’ names in a reference, the authors’ surnames are enclosed in a parenthesis with the specific page number.

    e.g. Both philosophers agree that the mind cannot exist without the soul. (Locke and Descartes, 134)

    For quotations found in an indirect or secondary source, the person or author who directly quoted the original author becomes a part of the text and the name of the original author is enclosed in parenthesis together with the page number where the work is cited.

    e.g. The philosopher Descartes stated that “there is no such thing as a mindless soul...” (qt. in Locke 133)

  5. The Chicago or Turabian Style
  6. For a book with one author, the surname of the author is enclosed in parenthesis together with the year of publication and the page numbers.

    e.g. (Locke 1698, p. 46- 48)

    Likewise, for an article in a printed journal, the same rule is followed as the first one.

    e.g. (Descartes 1642, p.133-134)

    The same rule is also applied when there are two authors cited in an electronic journal, or a website is used as a direct source of reference.

There are a lot of things that are not mentioned in this article. Only those that are basic and practical were explained.

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